Pang, B. and Lillian Lee. (2004). A sentimental education: sentiment analysis using subjectivity summarization based on minimum cuts. Proceedings of ACL, pp. 271–278, 2004. <>. [From the Abstract]Sentiment analysis seeks to identify the viewpoint(s) underlying a text span; an example application is classifying a movie review as ‘thumbs up’ or ‘thumbs down’. To determine this sentiment polarity, we propose a novel machine-learning method that applies text-categorization techniques to just the subjective portions of the document. Extracting these portions can be implemented using efficient techniques for finding minimum cuts in graphs; this greatly facilitates incorporation of cross-sentence contextual constraints.”

Liu, B. (2011). Opinion Mining, Sentiment Analysis, and Opinion Spam Detection: <>. [From the Abstract] “This work is in the general area of sentiment analysis, opinion extraction or opinion mining, and feature-based opinion summarization from the user-generated content or user-generated media on the Web, e.g., reviews, forum and group discussions, and blogs. In our KDD-2004 paper, we proposed the Feature-Based Opinion Mining model, which is now also called Aspect-Based Opinion Mining (as the term feature here can confuse with the term feature used in machine learning). The output of such opinion mining is a feature-based opinion summary or aspect-based opinion summary. The area is also related to sentiment classification.”

Abecassis, M. (2003). I Hate You Just the Way You Are: Exploring the Formation, Maintenance, and Need for Enemies. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 2003(102), 5-22. [From the Abstract] “The study of peers who dislike one another, termed mutual antipathies, is being recognized as an important aspect of a child’s social world. An overview of this area is provided, along with a focus on one particular type of antipathy, enemies.”

Alden, H., & Parker, K. (2005). Gender Role Ideology, Homophobia and Hate Crime: Linking Attitudes to Macro-Level Anti-Gay and Lesbian Hate Crimes. Deviant Behavior, 26(4), 321-343. doi:10.1080/016396290931 614 [From the Abstract] “This study fills a gap in the existing literature by incorporating attitudinal measures of gender role ideology and homophobia from the General Social Survey with macro level indicators of gender stratification when examining acts of gay and lesbian hate crime victimization. Specifically we estimate whether macro level indicators of attitudes toward gays and lesbians and gender views have direct and indirect effects on incidents of hate crime.”

Alexander, C. J. (2000). Hate Crimes: Including the Field of Mental Health in the Debate. Journal of Gay and Lesbian Social Services, 11(1), 101-104. [From the Abstract] “Although law enforcement and political officials have been slow to turn to the mental health community for insight on perpetrators of hate crimes, the need for input is growing. Numerous studies show that hate crimes, in contrast to crimes in general are likely to involve more violence, multiple offenders, greater psychological trauma to victims and a heightened risk of social disorder. This serves to reinforce the stereotype that gay and lesbian victims of violence are deserving of their assaults.”

ALKADRY, M. G., & WITT, M. T. (2009). Abu Ghraib and the Normalization of Torture and Hate. Public Integrity, 11(2), 135-153. [From the Abstract] “Testimonies and interviews by soldiers and victims reveal that what the world saw at Abu Ghraib was preceded by actions that normalized torture in American culture and constructed a demonized Arab “other.” Why did the military personnel and contractors do what they did? Explanations based on Milgram’s shock experiments, the Stanford prison experiment, and the culpability of senior personnel are considered. While the soldiers were accountable for their actions, it is concluded that they may have been overwhelmed by a sense that torture was acceptable and their victims were superfluous demons.”

Anderson J, Dyson L, Brooks Jr. W. Preventing Hate Crime and Profiling Hate Crime Offenders. Western Journal of Black Studies[serial online]. Fall2002 2002;26(3):140. [From the Abstract] “Proposes methods for preventing hate crimes and profiling hate crime offenders in the U.S. Statistics on hate crimes; Theories on the causes of hate crimes; Construction of offender typology through content analysis; Educational campaigns in cultural diversity awareness and racial tolerance.”

Barton, B. (2010). “Abomination”—Life as a Bible Belt Gay. Journal of Homosexuality, 57(4), 465-484. doi:10.1080/00918361003608558 [From the Abstract] “Drawing on observation, autoethnography, and audio-taped interviews, this article explores the religious backgrounds and experiences of Bible Belt gays. In the Bible Belt, Christianity is not confined to Sunday worship. Christian crosses, messages, paraphernalia, music, news, and attitudes permeate everyday settings. Consequently, Christian fundamentalist dogma about homosexuality—that homosexuals are bad, diseased, perverse, sinful, other, and inferior—is cumulatively bolstered within a variety of other social institutions and environments in the Bible Belt. Of the 46 lesbians and gay men interviewed for this study (age 18-74 years), most describe living through spirit-crushing experiences of isolation, abuse, and self-loathing. This article argues that the geographic region of the Bible Belt intersects with religious-based homophobia. Informants explained that negative social attitudes about homosexuality caused a range of harmful consequences in their lives including the fear of going to hell, depression, low self-esteem, and feelings of worthlessness.”

Baum, S. K. (2004). A bell curve of hate?. Journal of Genocide Research, 6(4), 567-577. [From the Abstract] “Looks into studies which attempted to understand the psychology of genocidal behavior. Detection of the role of social psychological forces in creating temporary killers under optimal conditions; Assessment of several factors which contributed to the genocidal behavior of a person; Focus on the social psychological processes inherent in the creation and perpetuation of hate beliefs in an individual.”

Berlet, C. (2003). Hate, Oppression, Repression, and the Apocalyptic Style: Facing Complex Questions and Challenges. Journal of Hate Studies, 3(1), 145-166. | Digital Print. <> [From the Abstract] “This paper argues that understanding the interrelated dynamics of hate,apocalyptic dualism, institutionalized oppression, and political repression is crucial to increasing the accuracy and effectiveness of our research and answering these questions. Organized hate groups defend unfair power and privilege by promoting collective action frames and constructing narratives that use dualism and apocalypticism to demonize scapegoats and allege sinister conspiracies. These dynamics, however, are modeled on pre-existing prejudice and bigotry that exist in muted forms in the larger society. Individuals who commit hate crimes often appear to have internalized scapegoating frames and narratives, but seldom are they members of organized supremacist groups. We need to place the study of organized hate groups in the context of the larger study of systems of oppression that generate hate.”

Bernardi, D. (2007). Racism and Pornography: Evidence, Paradigms, and Publishing. Cinema Journal, 46(4), 116-121. [From the Abstract] “An essay is presented on publishing two articles on race and pornography. The first article entitled ‘Cyborgs in Cyberspace: White Pride, Pedophilic Pornography and Donna Haraway’s Manifesto,’ focuses on hate speech and online pornography. The author argues in the second article ‘Interracial Joysticks: Pornography’s Web of Racist Attractions,’ that studies of pornography often lack sufficient ideological critique. Also cited are the reasons for publishing the second article without images.”

Blee, K. (2003). Positioning Hate. Journal of Hate Studies, 3(1), 95-105. [From the Abstract] “Focuses on the sociology of emotions and sociological studies of racial hatred and ethnoviolence. Role of Role of hate in practices of intergroup conflict and tension; Organization of social movements to oppose social advancement of women and other racial minorities; Effect of applying hatred on racial violence and formation of racist groups.”

Boeckmann, R. J., & Turpin-Petrosino, C. (2002). Understanding the Harm of Hate Crime. Journal of Social Issues, 58(2), 207. [From the Abstract] “Working definitions of hate crime and hate speech are situated within the broader context of intergroup relations, prejudice, aggression, and law and social policy. Theory and research from social psychology, criminology, and legal studies are utilized to describe this context. We present summaries of the multidisciplinary contributions to this issue and note how these articles emphasize the origins of hate crime, the harm that it creates, and victims’ and society’s response to hate crime.”

Boghossian, P. (2010). The concept of genocide. Journal of Genocide Research, 12(1/2), 69-80. doi:10.1080/14623528.2010.515402 [From the Abstract] “The article explores the concept of genocide. The author reflects on the formulation of the term genocide by Polish jurist Raphael Lemkin following the mass murder of Jews instigated by dictator Adolf Hitler and the mass murder of Armenians by Ottoman Turks. Emphasis is given to an analysis of how a concept developed by the United Nations can be said to define a particular crime and immoral act against a particular group. Other topics include the victims of the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks in the U.S., the firebombing of Dresden, Germany, and underlying motives for genocide.”

Brown, C. (2009). WWW.HATE.COM: White Supremacist Discourse on the Internet and the Construction of Whiteness Ideology. Howard Journal of Communications, 20(2), 189-208. doi:10.1080/10646170902869544 [From the Abstract] “Extremists and hate mongers use the Internet to access a potential audience of millions and to create a breeding ground for hate. In recent years, White supremacist organizations use chat rooms and Internet broadcasts to highlight a “racist double standard” and to promote racist ideologies. The influence of White supremacy is understudied and often ignored in communication studies on Whiteness and race. This study examines White supremacist discourse to show how it frames people of African descent using blatantly racist and offensive stereotypical overgeneralizations that set foundations of Whiteness ideology.”

Brown, T. S. (2004). Subcultures, Pop Music and Politics: Skinheads and “Nazi Rock” in England and Germany. Journal of Social History, 38(1), 157-178. [From the Abstract] “First prominent in the “Counterculture” of the 1960s and 70s, the phenomenon has become increasingly salient with the rise of right- wing-extremist rock music and racist skinhead violence in Europe since the fall of Communism.Examining the evolution of the “skinhead” from a fusion of West Indian immigrant and white working class youth styles in 1960s England into a vehicle of right-wing extremism in the Germany of the 1980s and 1990s, the article combines history and theory in an exploration of how an originally-English subculture was transformed through its contact with German social, cultural and historical traditions.”

Byers, B. D., & Crider, B. W. (2002). Hate crimes against the Amish: a qualitative analysis of bias motivation using routine activities theory. Deviant Behavior, 23(2), 115-148. doi:10.1080/016396202753424529 [From the Abstract] “This study examines hate crime against the Amish with a particular focus on the bias motivation that generates anti-Amish hate crime. To accomplish this task, non-Amish hate crime offenders were enlisted to share their experiences and stories about anti-Amish hate crime. A total of eight subjects were interviewed; the subjects supplied over 16 hours of audiotaped narrative describing acts of “Claping” they had committed against Old Order Amish. The data were transcribed and an analysis of the interview data revealed that themes emerged from offender narratives within each element of routine activities theory. The data support that the subjects were motivated offenders, the Amish were perceived as suitable targets, and there was a perception that guardians were lacking within the community to discourage anti-Amish hate crime. However, it is important to consider the themes that emerged within each dimension of routine activities when applying the theory to anti-Amish bias crime.”

Callanan, C. (2010). Taking action on hate crime. Learning Disability Practice, 13(6), 17-20. [From the Abstract] “The article stresses the need to take action against hate crime in people with disabilities. Hate crime experiences by these people include name-calling, verbal abuse, physical assault, bullying and harassment. Several of the hate crimes highlighted by the media also has the common theme of befriending role, also known as mate crime. Proposed measures to address these problems include the development of a guidance on identifying crimes that are motivated by hostility, reporting of hate crimes, elimination of disablism and government awareness campaign.”

Campbell, B. (2010). Contradictory Behavior During Genocides.Sociological Forum, 25(2), 296-314. doi:10.1111/j.1573-7861.2010.01177.x [From the Abstract] “In all large-scale genocides, rescuing occurs alongside killing. Some members of the aggressors’ ethnic group even risk their own lives to save members of the targeted group. Killing and rescuing occur closely together, and even the same persons may engage in both behaviors—killing on one occasion and rescuing on another. This article examines such cases—where the same individuals kill and rescue—and discusses their relevance to the explanation of genocide. Both collectivistic and individualistic theories of killing and rescuing—which explain these behaviors with the properties of groups or persons—are inadequate in accounting for those who do both. Using Donald Black’s (1995, 2000) strategy of pure sociology and my theory of genocide ( Campbell, 2009 ), I offer an explanation of contradictory behavior by individuals during genocide.”

CARBONELL, B. M. (2008). The Afterlife of Lynching: Exhibitions and the Re-composition of Human Suffering. Mississippi Quarterly, 62(1/2), 197-215. [From the Abstract] “The article presents a discussion of the ‘afterlife’ of lynching, and the ethical and aesthetic elements of depicting violent hate crimes of the past. The dichotomy between the chaotic and disturbing historical events themselves and the ordered, aesthetic exhibition of their study in museums is highlighted. Questions are raised regarding the long-term socio-psychological impact of the exhibition of violence in institutions.”

Chakraborti, N. (2010). Crimes Against the “Other”: Conceptual, Operational, and Empirical Challenges for Hate Studies. Journal of Hate Studies, 8(1), 9-28. [From the Abstract] “The article discusses some conceptual, operational and empirical challenges faced by researchers and policy-makers in hate crime studies. It also discusses legal framework for hate crime in Great Britain and the U.S., and outlines differences between them. It also outlines effectiveness, legitimacy and interpretation of legislations related to the hate crime.”

Chesebro, J. W., & McMahan, D. T. (2006). Media Constructions of Mass Murder-Suicides as Drama: The New York Times’ Symbolic Construction of Mass Murder-Suicides. Communication Quarterly, 54(4), 407-425. [From the Abstract] “This paper presents six symbolic and interrelated characteristics, which have consistently reemerged through The New York Times’ reporting of mass murder-suicides to not just describe events surrounding these acts but also create a sense of order and cast these acts as a destructive form of human behavior. Ultimately, the reporting of the mass murder-suicides by the Times represents a series of symbolic strategies and critical perspectives that present the mass murder-suicide as both burlesque and grotesque.”

Chua, C. (2009). Why Do Virtual Communities Regulate Speech?.Communication Monographs, 76(2), 234-261. doi:10.1080/03637750902828420 [From the Abstract] “Virtual community research argues that regulations restricting the kinds of speech in a virtual community decrease the utility to members. However, many virtual communities enact regulations on speech within the virtual community. This research explores the contradiction through a cross-case analysis of virtual communities. It explains the contradiction between research and practice using the theory of collective identity. Communication is important for creating collective identity in virtual communities. However, multiple collective identities can arise. When one collective identity within a virtual community defines itself as adversarial to another, silencing speech emerges as adversarial collective identity creates enduring noise and flames. When the target collective identity creates formal regulations suppressing the adversarial collective identity, communication to foster the target collective identity emerges.”

Clemmer, R. O. (2009). Land Rights, Claims, and Western Shoshones: The Ideology of Loss and the Bureaucracy of Enforcement. PoLAR: Political & Legal Anthropology Review, 32(2), 279-311. doi:10.1111/j.1555-2934.2009.01044.x [From the Abstract] “[This] discussion suggests that the attempted conquest of Native Americans is not a single fact accomplished in the past but is rather an ongoing process that is driven by the American political economy.Reference to the works of contemporary scholars, as well as to those of ancestral scholars Henry Sumner Maine, Karl Marx, Max Weber, and Antonio Gramsci elucidates how a dominant legal philosophy was put into place. This philosophy permitted the wielding of legal power and undermined Native Americans’ contestation of that power.Nevertheless, indigenous peoples such as the Western Shoshones, and the lawyers working with them, have found ways to use law to exert agency in the face of this bureaucratic force—creating an at-times ambivalent or double-edged relationship with legal power.”

Crim, B. E. (2010). The Intergalactic Final Solution: Nazism and Genocide in Paul Verhoeven’s Starship Troopers. Shofar: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Jewish Studies, 28(4), 104-115. [From the Abstract] “The article presents a film criticism of the 1997 motion picture ‘Starship Troopers,’ by Paul Verhoeven, focusing on its use of Nazi imagery and its thematic elements regarding fascism and genocide. Details are given describing the film and its popular reception as well as a large amount of criticism leveled at it for its appropriation of World War II propaganda and Nazi German costuming and ideology. Comments are given noting the film-maker’s satirical intent but also its serious examination into the social ideology underpinning fascism. Examination is then provided noting the specific parallels between the film’s fascist society and that of Nazi Germany during World War II.”

Cowan, G., Heiple, B., Marquez, C., Khatchadourian, D., & McNevin, M. (2005). Heterosexuals’ Attitudes Toward Hate Crimes and Hate Speech Against Gays and Lesbians: Old-Fashioned and Modern Heterosexism.Journal of Homosexuality, 49(2), 67-82. [From the Abstract] “This study examined the extent to which modern heterosexism and old-fashioned heterosexism predict acceptance of hate crimes against gays and lesbians and perceptions of hate speech. Male (n=74) and female (n=95) heterosexual college students completed a survey consisting of scales that assessed modern and old-fashioned heterosexism, acceptance of violence against gays and lesbians, attitudes toward the harm of hate speech and its offensiveness, and the importance of freedom of speech. Results indicated strong negative relations between both modern and old-fashioned heterosexism and the perceived harm of hate speech. When old-fashioned heterosexism, modern heterosexism, and the importance of freedom of speech were combined to predict hate crime and hate speech attitudes, only old-fashioned heterosexism predicted acceptance of hate crimes. All three predictors contributed to the perception of the harm of hate speech.”

David M. H. (2003, July 10) Factory Killer Had a Known History of Anger and Racial Taunts. New York Times. Retrieved 27 September, 2011, from [From the Article] “Co-workers said Mr. Williams’s racial prejudice, along with his short temper, were well known inside the plant, which makes parts for C-130J Hercules transports and vertical stabilizers for F-22 Raptor jets.”

Davison, J. (2006). The Politics of Hate: Ultranationalist and Fundamentalist Tactics and Goals. Journal of Hate Studies, 5(1), 37-61. [From the Abstract] “Ultranationalist and religious fundamentalist movements frequently use hate to mobilize people. These groups possess a sophisticated understanding of the importance of appealing to the emotions. Leaders often employ xenophobic language intended to inspire fear and justify a defensive reaction. The movements also rely heavily upon symbols, myths, and public events to simplify and communicate the ‘truths’ of their ideologies. The leaders convey messages with tremendous affective appeal. Yet, measures exist to counter and contain the politics of hate.”

Dwyer, P. G. (2009). ‘It Still Makes Me Shudder’: Memories of Massacres and Atrocities during the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars. War in History, 16(4), 381-405. [From the Abstract] “This article looks at a number of French testimonies of massacres during the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars committed by combatants, for the most part against civilians. Much of what we know about massacres is based on personal testimonies that are invariably from the perspective of the perpetrator, in this case, troops of the Grande Armée. Just as important as understanding why massacres occurred is to understand how they were represented, recalled and remembered by those who witnessed them. In this, memoirs become an indispensable tool for what they tell us about how the killings were justified, either from the individual or the state’s point of view, and for the insights one can glean into the minds of those that either committed or witnessed the atrocities taking place.”

Ekern, S. (2010). The modernizing bias of human rights: stories of mass killings and genocide in Central America. Journal of Genocide Research, 12(3/4), 219-241. doi:10.1080/14623528.2010.528996 [From the Abstract] “This article analyses selected cases of mass killings and genocide during the civil wars in El Salvador and Guatemala in the 1980s and the way in which the truth commissions in both countries reframed locally grounded narratives to fit the state-centred language of human rights. Redefining wrongdoings as human rights violations produces stories that communicate poorly with local worldviews because the ‘truths’ that human rights language proposes disregard local realities and transform local conflicts into a type of ‘modern’, nationwide struggles. Thus, while the concept of genocide might capture well the horrendous nature of a mass killing, it will also ethnify the conflict.”

Elliott, J. (2011). Sticks AND stones MAY BREAK MY BONES. Virginia Tech “Research” Magazine, 20-27. [From the Abstract] “The article offers information on the issues surrounding the hate speech in the U.S. It mentions the supreme court case regarding this issue, the Snyder v. Phelps. It also mentions two professors of the Virginia Tech who provide perspectives into the case including Brian Britt, a professor of religious studies and W. Wat Hopkins, a professor of communication.”

Engels, J. (2005). “EQUIPPED FOR MURDER”: THE PAXTON BOYS AND “THE SPIRIT OF KILLING ALL INDIANS” IN PENNSYLVANIA, 1763-1764.Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 8(3), 355-381. [From the Abstract] “In the winter of 1763, dozens of Western Pennsylvanians calling themselves the Paxton Boys murdered 21 Native Americans, a politically charged action that nearly embroiled the colony in civil war and altered the colony’s election in 1764. This essay examines the Paxton Boys’ justifications and also the failed rhetorical strategies developed by Quakers for defending Native Americans. . . As the Paxton Boys demonstrated the interrelationship between colonial violence and rhetoric, they set the precedent for future violence targeting Native Americans in Pennsylvania and beyond.”

Evans, C. (2006). What violent offenders remember of their crime: empirical explorations. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 40(6/7), 508-518. doi:10.1111/j.1440-1614.2006.01833.x [From the Abstract] “Little systematic evidence is available about how violent offenders remember and think about their violent crimes. The general aim of this article is to selectively review a range of different ‘types’ of memory disturbance and their risk factors, in an attempt to draw together different strands of research concerning memories of offending that might usefully be considered together for clinical purposes. A selective review of psychiatric or psychological studies related to amnesia, intrusive memories, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), ruminations, and pleasurable memories was performed.”

Eyerman, R. (2002). Music in Movement: Cultural Politics and Old and New Social Movements. Qualitative Sociology, 25(3), 443-458. [From the Abstract] “After a period of interdisciplinary openness, contemporary sociology has only recently rediscovered culture. This is especially true of political sociology, where institutional and network analyses, as well as rational choice models, have dominated. This article will offer another approach by focusing on the role of music and the visual arts in relation to the formation of collective identity, collective memory and collective action. Drawing on my own research on the Civil Rights movement in the United States and the memory of slavery in the formation of African-American identity, and its opposite, the place of white power music in contemporary neo-fascist movements, I will outline a model of culture as more than a mobilization resource and of the arts as political mediators.”

Falcone, J. (2006). Seeking Recognition: Patriotism, Power and Politics in Sikh American Discourse in the Immediate Aftermath of 9/11. Diaspora: A Journal of Transnational Studies, 15(1), 89-119. [From the Abstract] “After the events of 9/11, Sikh Americans were victims of specific hate crimes and more generalized discrimination and distrust. This essay draws on participant observation and interviews conducted in the immediate aftermath of 9/11 with the Sikh community of the greater Washington, DC, area to examine the range of their responses to the pressures confronted by the community. It examines both the creativity and the anxiety surrounding the intersubjective efforts of Sikh communities to redefine together diasporic Sikh identity in the eyes of a hostile non-Sikh public; this was achieved through the actions undertaken by a joint committee of the leadership of gurdwaras and advocacy groups.”

Faulkner, E. (2006). Homophobic Hate Propaganda in Canada. Journal of Hate Studies, 5(1), 63-97. [From the Abstract] “The article provides an overview of the legal sanctions and documentation of hate propaganda evidence toward homosexuals in Canada. The initiative is in line with the exploration of evidence materials that would constitute hate propaganda under sections 318 or 319 of the Criminal Code. Discussion of the impact of legal sanctions and hate propaganda are offered.”

Florian, A. (2009). Anti-Semitic and Holocaust-denying Topics in the Romanian Media. Romanian Journal of Political Science, 9(2), 80-95. [From the Abstract] “The following study uses qualitative analysis to identify the main anti-Jewish and Holocaust denial themes used in Romanian media. The hypothesis of the analysis is that even in modern societies freedom of expression is limited, particularly when it comes to messages which incite hate or which urge for discriminatory actions. In 2002, Romania joined other countries which in implementing active policies in order to discourage the public denial of Holocaust and profascist symbolism. Despite this, the media continue to disseminate anti-Jewish and Holocaust denial symbols. The paper identifies and analyzes the main themes and instruments the media employs in order to deliver such messages.”

Futrell, R., Simi, P., & Gottschalk, S. (2006). UNDERSTANDING MUSIC IN MOVEMENTS: The White Power Music Scene. Sociological Quarterly, 47(2), 275-304. doi:10.1111/j.1533-8525.2006.00046.x [From the Abstract] “Relying on the analysis of ethnographic and documentary data, this article explains how U.S. White Power Movement (WPM) activists use music to produce collective occasions and experiences that we conceptualize as the movement’s music scene. We use the concept “music scene” to refer to the full range of movement occasions in which music is the organizing principle. Members experience these not as discrete events, but as interconnected sets of situations that form a relatively coherent movement music scene. We emphasize three analytically distinct dimensions of this scene—local, translocal, and virtual—and specify how each contributes to emotionally loaded experiences that nurture collective identity. Participants claim that strong feelings of dignity, pride, pleasure, love, kinship, and fellowship are supported through involvement in the WPM music scene. These emotions play a central role in vitalizing and sustaining member commitments to movement ideals.”

Gerstenfeld, P. B., Grant, D. R., & Chau-Pu, C. (2003). Hate Online: A Content Analysis of Extremist Internet Sites. Analyses of Social Issues & Public Policy, 3(1), 29-44. doi:10.1111/j.1530-2415.2003.00013.x [From the Abstract] “A content analysis of 157 extremist web sites selected through purposive sampling was conducted using two raters per site. The sample represented a variety of extremist groups and included both organized groups and sites maintained by apparently unaffiliated individuals. Among the findings were that the majority of sites contained external links to other extremist sites (including international sites), that roughly half the sites included multimedia content, and that half contained racist symbols. A third of the sites disavowed racism or hatred, yet one third contained material from supremacist literature. A small percentage of sites specifically urged violence. These and other findings suggest that the Internet may be an especially powerful tool for extremists as a means of reaching an international audience, recruiting members, linking diverse extremist groups, and allowing maximum image control.”

Gottlieb, J. V. (2002). ‘Motherly Hate’: Gendering Anti–Semitism in the British Union of Fascists. Gender & History, 14(2), 294-320. [From the Abstract] “Throughout the interwar period, Britain’s fascist movement was marked by anti–Semitism. That anti–Semitism was such a striking feature of the movement is well known, and studies of British fascism have consequently paid attention to the implications and effects of racial prejudice on Britain’s Jewish community, and on British society more generally. However, the history of women in Britain’s fascist movement has been less well known, and the narrative of racial politics and racial tensions in interwar Britain must now be modified by a consideration of gender relations and women’s activism on the extreme right.”

Goujon, A. (1999). “Genozid”:a rallying cry in Belarus. A rhetoric analysis of some Belarusian nationalist texts. Journal of Genocide Research, 1(3), 353. [From the Abstract] “Analyzes nationalist texts on genocide in Belarus. Designation on the Soviet planned program of extermination of nations; Denouncement of methods and deeds disruptive to the existence of the Belarusian people; Consequence of the radioactive catastrophe of Chernobyl in April 1986.”

Harell, A. (2010). Political Tolerance, Racist Speech, and the Influence of Social Networks. Social Science Quarterly (Blackwell Publishing Limited), 91(3), 724-740. doi:10.1111/j.1540-6237.2010.00716.x [From the Abstract] “This study examines the influence of ethnic and racial network diversity on young people’s attitudes about speech rights in Canada by examining the impact of diversity on racist groups’ speech compared to other objectionable speech… The analysis suggests that exposure to racial and ethnic diversity in one’s social networks decreases political tolerance of racist speech while simultaneously having a positive effect on political tolerance of other types of objectionable speech.”

Harrington, E. R. (2003). The Social Psychology of Hatred. Journal of Hate Studies, 3(1), 49-82. [From the Abstract] “There are three primary approaches social psychologists have utilized in studying prejudice and intergroup aggression. The first approach may be thought of as a general model of social influence in which a variety of situational factors have been found to increase, or decrease, laboratory subjects’ proclivity to engage in stereotyping or aggressive behavior. Particular types of situations may promote hatred, such as when individuals in mobs behave in ways they ordinarily would not. The second approach might be termed an interpersonal attitude approach, in the sense that individuals are measured in the degree to which they hold attitudes corresponding to authoritarianism and social dominance, which in turn relate to social hostility and prejudice. This approach, popular in the 1950s and 1960s, fell out of favor during the past quarter century, and is currently experiencing a revival of interest by researchers. The third approach focuses on social cognition or the way in which humans perceive the social world in a biased manner due to limits on the brain’s information processing capacity. The social cognition approach in turn gave rise to social categorization theory and social identity theory, both of which describe important aspects of intergroup processes that explain outgroup derogation and discrimination.”

Hate Crimes Against Gays Spreading. (2007). USA Today Magazine, 136(2748), 9. [From the Abstract] “The article reports that eight lesbians and bisexuals in the U.S. have been the target of violence or a property crime because of their sexual orientation, according to a study by University of California, Davis, psychology professor Gregory Herek. This is the most reliable estimate to date of the prevalence of anti-gay victimization in the U.S., he claimed. The data demonstrates that crimes against sexual minority adults, especially gay men, are disturbingly widespread.”

Hawthorne, S. (2005). Ancient Hatred and Its Contemporary Manifestation: The Torture of Lesbians. Journal of Hate Studies, 4(1), 33-58. [From the Abstract] “This paper looks at a number of different elements that make up the experience of torture by lesbians in the contemporary world. I draw together elements of popular culture, along with testimonies by lesbians, concerning torture in diverse countries, as well as citing some historical sources. I examine the justifications and excuses given for torture, including the view that rape is a normal part of heterosexual activity. I argue that domination is exemplified in the punishment of lesbians as outsiders in patriarchal culture, in particular when groups and nations go to war. I also look at the way in which arguments for the legalization of torture share similarities with arguments in favor of prostitution, pornography, and consensual BDSM. I challenge the defenders of these acts and argue that such defense is a case of moral neglect. I conclude with the contention that the freedom of lesbians from torture and violence may be an indicator of the social health of a society.”

Herf, J. (2009). Hate Radio. Chronicle of Higher Education, 56(14), B12-B13. [From the Abstract] “The essay discusses the effect of radio broadcasts of Nazi propaganda on opinions in the Middle East and North Africa. It cites the book ‘Jihad and Jew-Hatred: Islamism, Nazism and the Roots of 9/11 by Matthias Kuentzel as showing how Nazi ideology influenced groups such as the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt, the founding charter of the Palestinian group Hamas, and the rhetoric of President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad of Iran”

Hicks, K., & Hinck, S. M. (2008). Concept analysis of self-mutilation.Journal of Advanced Nursing, 64(4), 408-413. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2648.2008.04822.x [From the Abstract] “Self-mutilation is the intentional act of tissue destruction with the purpose of shifting overwhelming emotional pain to a more acceptable physical pain. Antecedents of self-mutilation are impaired coping skills and an unhealthy response to situations that cause unbearable emotional stress. Limited research suggests that risk factors for self-mutilation may be White race, adolescent age, female sex and history of sexual abuse as a child. Although self-mutilation allows the individual to gain control over emotions and provides a diversion from emotional pain, a release of endorphins after the physical damage that contributes to the feeling of relief supports an addictive maladaptive coping cycle of pain, relief, shame and self-hate.”

Hill, D. B., & Willoughby, B. B. (2005). The Development and Validation of the Genderism and Transphobia Scale. Sex Roles, 53(7/8), 531-544. doi:10.1007/s11199-005-7140-x [From the Abstract] “A series of three studies were conducted to develop and validate a scale to measure violence, harassment, and discrimination toward cross-dressers, transgenderists, and transsexuals. In Study 1, we developed the Genderism and Transphobia Scale (GTS).In Study 2, we established the GTS’s ability to predict parents’ reactions to either a gender conforming or a gender non-conforming boy or girl. Correlations between the GTS and scales that assess homophobia and gender role ideologies suggest convergent validity. In Study 3, we conducted a factor analysis of the scale, found further evidence of the scale’s discriminant and convergent validity, and tested the scale’s ability to predict previous contact with gender non-conformists. Taken as a whole, the results of these studies demonstrate the basic psychometric properties of a new and useful scale to measure antipathy toward people who cross genders and sexes.”

Hirsch-Hoefler, S., & Halperin, E. (2005). Through the Squalls of Hate: Arab-Phobic Attitudes among Extreme Right and Moderate Right in Israel.Palestine-Israel Journal of Politics, Economics & Culture, 12(2/3), 53-60. [From the Abstract] “The article focuses on the negative perceptions and attitudes towards minorities with reference to Arab-phobic attitudes among extreme right and moderate right in Israel.The concept of Arab-phobia unifies different cognitive and psychological aspects and accurately reflects the generalized negative relation of the members of one group towards. The disinclination towards a romantic relation with an Arab is a feeling shared by most Israeli Jews. Arab-phobia is an important factor which helps to distinguish between moderate rightists and extreme ones.”

Jacobs, S. (2008). Revisiting Hateful Science: The Nazi “Contribution” to the Journey of Antisemitism. Journal of Hate Studies, 7(1), 47-75. [From the Abstract] “The case study is that of the Nazi Otmar Freiherr von Verschuer, MD, (1896-1969), eugenicist and geneticist, and, specifically, his (1938) text “Racial Biology of the Jews.” Of particular note is the American “connection,” in supplying both supporting legitimation for the pseudo-science of eugenics and two contemporary examples showing that the ideas of von Verschuer and other members of the German scientific community are far from extinct and continue to play a role in far Right antisemitic movements. The accompanying photographs remind us that this work of hateful science was not confined to intellectual theorizing or laboratory work with lower-order animals, but was made real in the death camps under Nazi hegemony.”

Jacobs, S. (2003). The Last Uncomfortable “Religious” Question? Monotheistic Exclusivism and Textual Superiority in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam as Sources of Hate and Genocide. Journal of Hate Studies, 3(1), 133-143. [From the Abstract] “This paper is a preliminary examination of some of the texts of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam-Hebrew Bible, New Testament, Qur’an-that appear to affirm such exclusivism, and, at the same time, a reflection upon the meanings and implications of those texts coterminous with their historical realities.”

Kabatsi, F. (2005). Defining or Diverting Genocide: Changing the Comportment of Genocide. International Criminal Law Review, 5(3), 387-399. doi:10.1163/1571812054940085 [From the Abstract] “This paper discusses issues concerning the legal definition of genocide. The paper begins by providing a brief background to the crime of genocide. Part I of the paper deals with the attempts to define it, highlighting the main controversial points and seeing how the various courts as well as the way several scholars have approached the said issues, which all go towards illustrating that genocide has serious definition problems. Part II deals with the question of highlighting the appearance of a trend of denying that genocide has occurred, or is occurring. In this part, the reasons behind the hesitation of states to label a particular situation as genocide are discussed. Part III considers whether there is a need to change the comportment or character of genocide, more especially the manner with which scholars approach genocide.”

Kalish, R., & Kimmel, M. (2010). Suicide by mass murder: Masculinity, aggrieved entitlement, and rampage school shootings. Health Sociology Review, 19(4), 451-464. doi:10.5172/hesr.2010.19.4.451 [From the Abstract] “School shootings have become more common in the United States in recent years.Yet, as media portrayals of these ‘rampages’ shock the public, the characterisation of this violence obscures an important point: many of these crimes culminate in suicide, and they are almost universally committed by males. We examine three recent American cases, which involve suicide, to elucidate how the culture of hegemonic masculinity in the US creates a sense of aggrieved entitlement conducive to violence.This sense of entitlement simultaneously frames suicide as an appropriate, instrumental behaviour for these males to underscore their violent enactment of masculinity.”

Kidd, J. D., & Witten, T. M. (2007). Transgender and Trans sexual Identities: The Next Strange Fruit-Hate Crimes, Violence and Genocide Against the Global Trans-Communities. Journal of Hate Studies, 6(1), 31-63. [From the Abstract] “In this paper, we review the literature on global transgender hate crimes, violence, and abuse. We point out that it is possible to infer that this problem is not localized to the United States but rather, represents a global pandemic of focused prejudice. We point out that it can be viewed not only as an extremely serious and immediate public health problem, but also as genocide against a consistently invisibilized minority population. We provide concrete examples from the researchers’ field studies as well as from the published literature.”

Lacy, M. G. (2010). White Innocence Myths in Citizen Discourse, The Progressive Era (1974-1988). Howard Journal of Communications, 21(1), 20-39. doi:10.1080/10646170903501336 [From the Abstract] “This study offers an analysis of 288 letters to the editor during one of the most allegedly progressive periods in US race relations, 1974-1988. Citizens’ letters produced a mythic narrative that offered images of White innocence and victimage in order to resist federal desegregation orders, maintain political advantages, deflect racist accusations, and justify anti-Black hate crimes. By doing so, citizens blamed Blacks and liberals for persistent social problems while maintaining White privilege.The formal structures of this diffuse mythic narrative are (a) the purified scene (or rebirth), (b) individualistic heroes, and (c) institutional enemies. This article also exposes the limitations of rugged individualism myths to resolve racial inequalities, anti-Black racism, White privilege, segregation, poverty, and White masculine hate crimes.”

Lawrence, A. (2010). Being historically rigorous with creativity: how can creative approaches help solve the problems inherent in teaching about genocide?. Teaching History, (140), 47-53. [From the Abstract] “After a Fellowship in Holocaust Education at the Imperial War Museum, Andy Lawrence decided that something was missing in normal approaches to teaching emotive and controversial issues such as genocide, a deficit demonstrated by recent research by the Holocaust Education Development Programme. As part of his fellowship, Lawrence created an on-line exhibition builder, which allowed students to use their creativity to construct an exhibition, using original source material, about the Holocaust. Lawrence used his exhibition builder to demonstrate that teaching potentially difficult topics need not come at the price of creativity.”

Levene, M. (2004). Battling demons or banal exterminism? Apocalypse and statecraft in modern mass murder. Journal of Human Rights, 3(1), 65-81. [From the Abstract] “Discusses whether mass murder can be the product of both a state leadership’s rationality and irrationality. Stalinism’s embodiment of the most consistent uninhibited expression of the spirit of modernity; Disparity between hubristic assumptions and the social and political realities; Collective psychic struggle precipitating outbreaks of mass violence and self-destruction.”

Lewy, G. (2007). Can there be genocide without the intent to commit genocide?. Journal of Genocide Research, 9(4), 661-674. doi:10.1080/14623520701644457 [From the Abstract] “The article focuses on the role of intent in genocide or the destruction of an entire group of people. It argues that the disregard of intentionality can hinder the full understanding of events that seen to constitute genocide and lead to a distorted finding of responsibility. The role of intent is also important in the historian’s assessment of an episode of mass death that occurred in the past. The structural violence as a form of genocide and the genocidal consequences as proof of genocide are discussed.”

Li, Q. (2008). A cross-cultural comparison of adolescents’ experience related to cyberbullying. Educational Research, 50(3), 223-234. doi:10.1080/00131880802309333 [From the Abstract] “This study explores the issues of cyberbullying from a cross-cultural perspective. The focus is on the examination of the extent of a sample of Canadian and Chinese adolescentsexperiences and possible culture differences related to bullying and cyberbullying…. Findings show both similar and different patterns between Canadian and Chinese adolescentsexperiences of cyberbullying.Between the sample of Canadian and Chinese students, the results demonstrate similar patterns in their behaviours related to traditional bullying but some different patterns in their behaviours related to cyberbullying.”

Luc, S. (2004, May 11). Tourists and Torturers. New York Times. p. 23. Retrieved 27 September, 2011, from [From the Article] “There have been many atrocity photographs over the years, of course — the worst I’ve ever seen were taken in Algeria in 1961, and once when I was a child another kid found and showed off his father’s cache of pictures from the Pacific Theater in World War II, which shook me so badly that I can’t remember with any certainty what they depicted. I’m pretty sure, though, that they did not show anyone grinning and making self-congratulatory gestures.”

Lyon Macfie, A. (2008). Thuggee: an orientalist construction?. Rethinking History, 12(3), 383-397. doi:10.1080/13642520802193262 [From the Abstract] “This article surveys the historiography of thuggee, the system of mass murder supposedly discovered by the British in India in the nineteenth century. In particular, it asks how far the thuggee archive, created by William Sleeman, the British official mainly concerned, can be considered reliable, and how far it should be seen as an orientalist construct. At the same time the article looks briefly at the way thuggee appears from time to time in western literature and film in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries as a significant image representing oriental (Indian) backwardness and barbarity.”

Lynn Rivers, P. (2006). Governing Sounds: Hate, Race, and Responsibility in Post-Apartheid Broadcasting. Critical Studies in Media Communication, 23(3), 219-231. doi:10.1080/07393180600800783 [From the Abstract] “The bounds of permissible hate in post-apartheid broadcasting in South Africa have been shaped by the state’s withdrawal from certain regulatory processes, as well as the emerging regulation by the Broadcasting Complaints Commission of South Africa (BCCSA). The BCCSA—established, financed, and operated by South Africa’s broadcasting industry—filled the regulatory void not just by governing post-apartheid hate; the BCCSA has sought to govern the racial constructs upon which hate depends.With the state’s withdrawal, BCCSA officials have configured hate and race in neoliberal ways, shifting responsibility for post-apartheid hate away from apartheid’s beneficiaries and toward those apartheid was intended to subjugate.”

Mass, L. D. (2011). HIV Denialism and African Genocide. Gay & Lesbian Review Worldwide, 18(3), 13-17. [From an Abstract] “An essay is presented on AIDS denialism of gay community and the communities in South Africa. It offers perspectives on AIDS including the assumption that AIDS is an unavoidable culmination of gay community, the notion that a new virus causes AIDS, and that AIDS is a punishment of God for evildoing, which turned out to be far-sighted. The author cites his documentary on global AIDS pandemic, wherein 30,000 deaths are from Africa and most of the victims are bisexual and heterosexual.”

McAlear, R. (2009). Hate, Narrative, and Propaganda in The Turner Diaries. Journal of American Culture, 32(3), 192-202. doi:10.1111/j.1542-734X.2009.00710.x [From the Abstract] “The article presents an examination of the propaganda strategies employed by William Pierce, leader of the neo-Nazi organization the National Alliance, in his novel ‘The Turner Diaries’ to promote an ideology of hate. How these propaganda techniques are designed to urge the reader to identify with the Turner character by the use of editorial authority is examined through Pierce’s source materials such as the John Birch Society’s ‘John Franklin Letters,’ and Eugene Methvin’s ‘The Riot Makers,’ and editorials he published in his paper ‘Attack!’ The historic roots of the hate novel genre are discussed. The practice of selling ‘The Turner Diaries’ at gun shows is mentioned.”

Meddaugh, P., & Kay, J. (2009). Hate Speech or “Reasonable Racism?” The Other in Stormfront. Journal of Mass Media Ethics, 24(4), 251-268. doi:10.1080/08900520903320936 [From the Abstract] “Through the Internet, white supremacists create a rhetorical vision that resonates with those who feel marginalized by contemporary political, social, and economic forces. However, as compared to previous studies of on-line white supremacist rhetoric, we show that Stormfront discourse appears less virulent and more palatable to the naive reader. We suggest that Stormfront provides a ‘cyber transition’ between traditional hate speech and ‘reasonable racism,’a tempered discourse that emphasizes pseudo-rational discussions of race, and subsequently may cast a wider net in attracting audiences.”

Mello, J. A. (2008). Hate Speech, the First Amendment, and Professional Codes of Conduct: Where to Draw the Line?. Journal of Legal Studies Education, 25(1), 1-16. doi:10.1111/j.1744-1722.2008.00044.x [From the Abstract] “The article presents a case study of a sitting judge who received a letter from Mississippi newspaper regarding the approval of a law that provides legal rights to partner of the same sex. The Mississippi Supreme Court had to decide whether the judge had violated judicial ethics or whether the conduct of the judge fell within his right to free speech. “

Meloy, J., Hempel, A. G., Gray, B., Mohandie, K., Shiva, A., and Richards, T. C. (2004). A comparative analysis of North American adolescent and adult mass murderers. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 22(3), 291-309. doi:10.1002/bsl.586 [From the Abstract] “Thirty adult mass murderers and 34 adolescent mass murderers in North America are compared on both offender and offense variables to delineate similarities and differences. Findings indicate a plethora of psychiatric disturbances and odd/reclusive and acting-out personality traits. Predisposing factors include a fascination with weapons and war among many of the adolescents and the development of a “warrior mentality” in most of the adults. Precipitating factors indicate a major rejection or loss in the hours or days preceding the mass murder.”

Messner, B. A., Jipson, A., Becker, P. J., and Byers, B. (2007). The Hardest Hate: A Sociological Analysis of Country Hate Music. Popular Music & Society, 30(4), 513-531. doi:10.1080/03007760701546380 [From the Abstract] “This research offers an ethno-musicological content analysis of country hate music from the 1960s. This analysis explains hate motivation in music by examining lyrics and musical themes in 23 songs. This research considers how white racial extremists use music to advance their goals and movement objectives through lyrics that dehumanize African-Americans and create imagery of white unity and solidarity. Most of the scholarly literature on “hate music” examines bands from the 1970s, such as the English band Skrewdriver, and hate-motivated heavy metal and racist skinhead music (Cotter). This study breaks new ground by examining an all-but-ignored time period in the history of the music of white racial extremists.”

Milic, L. (2003). From Serbia with Hate : A Case Study in Globalization, Trauma, and Language. Dialectical Anthropology, 27(3/4), 331-353. [From the Abstract] “This article analyzes a set of five postcards, purchased from a street stand in Belgrade, the capital of Yugoslavia, shortly after the NATO bombing of the country took place in the spring of 1999. While the postcards obviously serve as protests against the bombing, as well as testimonies of the nation-wide trauma caused by it, they also reveal a careful negotiation between representations of trauma – keeping it displaced enough to avoid vicarious traumatization for individual survivors, but focused enough to translate it into a part of the national Serb identity and relying on the symbolism available in historical public narratives. However, since all the postcards analyzed here use English language in one form or another, they can also be read as peculiar interpretations of globalization on a local level. “

Mohr, J. M. (2007). Hate Studies Through a Constructivist and Critical Pedagogical Approach. Journal of Hate Studies, 6(1), 65-80. [From the Abstract] “The article examines the purpose of a field of hate studies and the development of a program using artistic theories and critical teaching. A comprehensive curriculum is required to establish the field structure and to satisfy the task of integrating multiple conceptions of hate. This is to identify testable remedies and understand the phenomenon of hate. Likewise, a curriculum will render focus for examining hate, research methods, and strategies.”

Moore, D., and Aweiss, S. (2002). Hatred of “Others” among Jewish, Arab, and Palestinian Students in Israel. Analyses of Social Issues & Public Policy, 2(1), 151-172. [From the Abstract] “This study analyzes hatred against diverse sociopolitical groups and compares the social and political attitudes of three distinct and highly differentiated groups: Jewish, Arab, and Palestinian high school students in Israel and the Palestinian Authority. It examines their perceptions of the political context and aims to find the factors that influence the extremity of their hatred. Analysis of the data shows that the proposed model is more applicable to Jewish students than it is to Arabs and Palestinians, and shows that hatred toward outgroups is influenced by religiosity, the salience of national and civic identity, national security issues, and political ideology.”

Muscari, P. G. (2005). A PLEA FOR MYTHOS. Dialogue & Universalism, 15(3/4), 99-106. [From the Abstract] “Since of much of modern discourse, extending from cognitivism to connectionism to deconstructivism, has been greatly inclined to look at reality in relation to processes where the personal factor plays little if any causal role, the pursuit of wisdom today has become primarily identified with the logos or the pursuit of a rational account of reality and the rule governing principles behind it. Although there is not space enough to traverse all that is involved here, it will be argued in this paper that the secrets of wisdom will never be revealed if its nature is limited to a singular description of just one function of thought. What is needed if the love of wisdom is to be regained is a more dynamic and symmetrical account—one that considers the reconstructive e nature and generative e capabilities of the human mind as well as the flexibility and complexity of thought; one that realizes that the end stages of logos are only the by-product of insight obtained from more personal and emotionally charged meaning; and one that takes seriously the role of mythos in the thinking process.”

Nakamura, L. (2009). Don’t Hate the Player, Hate the Game: The Racialization of Labor in World of Warcraft. Critical Studies in Media Communication, 26(2), 128-144. doi:10.1080/15295030902860252 [From the Abstract] “This article examines the racialization of informational labor in machinima about Chinese player workers in the massively multiplayer online role playing game World of Warcraft. Such fan-produced video content extends the representational space of the game and produces overtly racist narrative space to attach to a narrative that, while carefully avoiding explicit references to racism or racial conflict in our world, is premised upon a racial war in an imaginary world–the World of Azeroth. This profiling activity is part of a larger biometric turn initiated by digital culture’s informationalization of the body and illustrates the problematics of informationalized capitalism. If late capitalism is characterized by the requirement for subjects to be possessive individuals, to make claims to citizenship based on ownership of property, then player workers are unnatural subjects in that they are unable to obtain avatarial self-possession. The painful paradox of this dynamic lies in the ways that it mirrors the dispossession of information workers in the Fourth Worlds engendered by ongoing processes of globalization. As long as Asian ‘farmers’ are figured as unwanted guest workers within the culture of MMOs, user-produced extensions of MMO-space like machinima will most likely continue to depict Asian culture as threatening to the beauty and desirability of shared virtual space in the World of Warcraft.”

Newman, S. L. (2002). Liberty, Community, and Censorship: Hate Speech and Freedom of Expression in Canada and the United States. American Review of Canadian Studies, 32(3), 369. [From the Abstract] “Focuses on censorship of hate speech and freedom of expression in Canada and the United States. Reasons for the government to censor the hate speech; Limits of the freedom of expression.”

Opotow, S., & McClelland, S. (2007). The Intensification of Hating: A Theory. Social Justice Research, 20(1), 68-97. doi:10.1007/s11211-007-0033-0 [From the Abstract] “Hate, a simple word, is easily understood by young children. But as a concept, hate is vast, complex, and slippery. The study of hate is not limited to one discipline; it is studied throughout the humanities and social sciences. This paper, which presents a psychological theory of hating, argues that hate is an understudied psychological construct and has particular relevance to justice research. Hate can trigger injustice, and injustice has the capacity to trigger derogation, violence, and hate. Relying on four literatures—justice, psychology, psychoanalysis, and criminal justice—we present a theory of hating that describes the formation, perpetuation, and expression of this influential emotional state. The Intensification Theory of Hating describes hate as a dynamic process that moves from antecedents to emotions, cognitions, morals, and behaviors. Hate, we argue, is not only an emotion; it becomes systemic when interactions among its components unfold over time to intensify hate. We conclude by proposing research approaches and questions that could address hate in psychological and justice research.”

Ostendorf, D. (2001). Christian Identity: An American Heresy. Journal of Hate Studies, 1(1), 23. [From the Abstract] “Studies the Christian identity belief system and its role in the prevention of hate. Key features of Christian identity; Analysis of pertinent topics and relevant issues; Implications on hate studies.”

Padel, F., & Das, S. (2010). Cultural genocide and the rhetoric of sustainable mining in East India. Contemporary South Asia, 18(3), 333-341. doi:10.1080/09584935.2010.503871 [From the Abstract] “In mining projects and metal factories proliferating in tribal areas of eastern central India, a gross disparity is evident between the dispossession and violence experienced by tribal communities on the one hand, and the rhetoric of ‘sustainable development’ put out by mining companies through public relations companies and the media on the other. While a large section of India’s middle classes accept and identify with this rhetoric, grassroots movements of resistance to industrial displacement are gathering strength. ‘Sustainable mining’ is a concept promoted by mining companies through the International Council on Mining and Metals through its Mining, Minerals and Sustainable Development report. Yet long-term sustainability is the essence of the tribal communities being dispossessed of their land and resources, and a ‘reality gap’ exists between the rhetoric of development and events on the ground. Poverty is increasing, and ‘cultural genocide’ is a fitting description of the displacement process experienced by hundreds of tribal communities, while the war against the Maoists is in many ways a classic ‘resource war’.”

Pauli, C. (2010). KILLING THE MICROPHONE: WHEN BROADCAST FREEDOM SHOULD YIELD TO GENOCIDE PREVENTION. Alabama Law Review, 61(4), 665-700. [From the Abstract] “The Article draws on empirical research in the field of communication to identify conditions in which media messages become so powerful that they can mobilize audience members. Using this research, it constructs a framework for determining when speech constitutes incitement to genocide such that it loses any protection under international law and perhaps even triggers an affirmative duty on the part of other states to intervene. The proposed framework is unique. Unlike current definitions of incitement to genocide, it is not concerned with convicting the criminal, but aims entirely at preventing the crime. It is also unique in bringing this interdisciplinary approach to this compelling goal.”

Pawlikowski, J. T. (2003). Religion as Hatred: Antisemitism as a Case Study. Journal of Hate Studies, 3(1), 37-48. [From the Abstract] “Presents a case study related to the role of religion as a source of hatred. Focus on the history of Christian antisemitism as an important factor to study how religion can turn into a force for hate; Analysis of the influence of religion on generating prejudice that leads to hatred; Factors contributing the agitation of hatred against the Jews during the earlier century.”

Pearson, A. R., Dovidio, J. F., & Pratto, F. (2007). Racial Prejudice, Intergroup Hate, and Blatant and Subtle Bias of Whites toward Blacks in Legal Decision Making in the United States. International Journal of Psychology & Psychological Therapy, 7(2), 145-158. [From the Abstract] “The present study examined the multidimensional nature of intergroup hate and the potential roles of hate and prejudice in expressions of White Americans’ treatment of Blacks within the context of the U.S. legal system. White participants in the U.S. read about a provoked or unprovoked violent assault perpetrated by a Black assailant on a White victim. Emotional reactions and recommendations for punishment (prescribed sentencing and support for the death penalty) were assessed. Supportive of Sternberg’s (2003) duplex model of hate, we found that explicit (self-reported) hate reflected separate components of negation of intimacy (e.g., disgust and repulsion), passion (anger and fear), and devaluation/commitment (e.g., attributions of evil and inhuman); these components, in turn, differentially mediated punitiveness toward the assailant. The results also revealed that although the direct effect of prejudice on retribution was mediated by self-reported hate, more subtle and indirect effects occurred independently of hate or its affective components.”

Perry, B., & Blazak, R. (2010). Places for Races: The White Supremacist Movement Imagines U.S. Geography. Journal of Hate Studies, 8(1), 29-51. [From the Abstract] “Increasingly, scholars are acknowledging that racial and other forms of animus assume a spatial dimension. Not only does intercultural hostility take different forms depending on location, but so, too, does the concomitant bias-motivated violence imply ‘places for races.’ The very intent and motive of hate crimes are grounded in the perceived need of perpetrators to defend carefully crafted boundaries. While these boundaries are largely cultural, they may also take on a real, physical form, at least from the perpetrator’s perspective. Nowhere is this more evident than in the geographical imagination of the White Supremacist movement. This paper will trace the ways in which the movement idealizes the appropriate geographical ‘places for races.’”

Perry, B., and Olsson, P. (2009). Cyberhate: the globalization of hate. Information and Communications Technology Law, 18(2), 185-199. doi:10.1080/13600830902814984 [From the Abstract] “Increasingly, scholars are examining the ways in which the Internet allows the hate movement to retrench and reinvent itself as a viable collective. The many electronic means available to the movement – blogs, newsgroups, ‘zines, etc. – allow an ease of communication and dissemination of their views never before possible. While there are obvious points of convergence across the various Klan groups, or identity churches, or skinhead organizations, the hate movement has historically been varied and, in fact, fractured. Internet communication facilitates the creation of the collective identity that is so important to movement cohesiveness. Clearly, this has strengthened the domestic presence of these groups in countries like the United States, Germany and Sweden.Yet relatively less attention has been paid to the way in which the Web facilitates the consolidation of a global movement. Internet communication knows no national boundaries. Consequently, it allows the hate movement to extend its collective identity internationally, thereby facilitating a potential ‘global racist subculture’. It is this process that we seek to uncover in this paper, with an eye to thinking about ways to intervene so as to weaken the impact.”

Peskin, M., Tortolero, S. R., & Markham, C. M. (2006). BULLYING AND VICTIMIZATION AMONG BLACK AND HISPANIC ADOLESCENTS.Adolescence, 41(163), 467-484. [From the Abstract] “This study adds to the literature as few U.S. studies on both general and specific types of bullying have been conducted among low socioeconomic, racial/ethnic minority students in middle and high school.”

Plumm, K. M., Terrance, C. A., Henderson, V. R., & Ellingson, H. (2010). Victim Blame in a Hate Crime Motivated by Sexual Orientation. Journal of Homosexuality, 57(2), 267-286. doi:10.1080/00918360903489101 [From the Abstract] “A jury simulation paradigm was employed for two studies exploring levels of victim blame in a case of bias-motivated assault based on sexual orientation. In the first study, participants were grouped according to their score on the Index of Homophobia (IHP) scale as either reporting high or low support for gay and lesbian community members. The label of the crime (i.e., bias-motivated assault versus first-degree assault) as well as the gender of the victim were systematically varied. Results indicated that attributions of blame against the victim varied as a function of participants’ attitudes toward minority sexual orientation.”

Powell, C. (2007). What do genocides kill? A relational conception of genocide. Journal of Genocide Research, 9(4), 527-547. doi:10.1080/14623520701643285 [From the Abstract] “The article presents a relational conception of genocide, then, explores the positive implications of this conception. In this view, genocide refers to the process of violent destruction of a self-reproducing dynamic network of practical social relations, whose organizing principle is collective identification. This conceptiondirects the attention of the public to the empirical investigation of the self-organizing properties of social networks and allows them to pose the question of reconstruction and renaissance among genocide survivors.”

Rajadhyaksha, M. (2006). Genocide on the Airwaves: An Analysis of the International Law Concerning Radio Jamming. Journal of Hate Studies, 5(1), 99-118. [From the Abstract] “Using the Rwandan genocide as an example, this article makes a case for allowing the jamming of radios that are broadcasting hate speech in situations in which such hate speech would incite genocide. To this end, it discusses the law relating to freedom of speech and communication in international law and its relative position when applied to genocide. Further, it analyzes the traditional notions of state sovereignty to make a case for humanitarian intervention by radio jamming. Finally, it recommends the establishment of a body under the aegis of the UN with the mandate and equipment to jam incendiary broadcasts in situations that are gravitating toward genocide.”

Rayburn, N., & Davison, G. C. (2002). Articulated Thoughts About Antigay Hate Crimes. Cognitive Therapy & Research, 26(4), 431. [From the Abstract] “This study employed the articulated thoughts in simulated situations (ATSS) paradigm in the investigation of college students’ thoughts upon confrontation with a conspiracy to commit a sexual-orientation-based hate crime versus a nonbias crime. In a between-subjects experimental design, participants were exposed to an audiotaped scenario depicting either the planning of a hate crime or a comparable nonhate crime.Content analysis of participants’ articulated thoughts in response to these stimuli revealed that the hate crime resulted in more intentions to physically aggress against the perpetrator. This supports the notion that hate crimes have a greater potential than other crimes to lead to future violence. More people were also willing to intervene and help the hate crime victim than the nonhate crime victim. In addition, antigay attitudes turned out to be predictive of anger against the hate crime victim, disapproval of the hate crime victim, and support of the hate crime perpetrators.”

Rechtman, R. (2006). The Survivor’s Paradox: Psychological Consequences of the Khmer Rouge Rhetoric of Extermination.Anthropology & Medicine, 13(1), 1-11. doi:10.1080/136484705005162287 [From the Abstract] “In the aftermath of extermination, the social existence of the deceased depends on the survivors’ capacity to always carry them with them in a shared destiny. For those who survived, the consequences of this rhetoric may generate a distressful feeling of living in a world of death that conforms to the perpetrator’s will. The survivor’s paradox is undoubtedly one of the principal consequences of this will to deprive prisoners of their human condition. It is a kind of interiorization of the perpetrator’s rhetoric. For the survivor to leave this world of death could mean abandoning the dead without a symbolic place where they could exist. But if he/she keeps them only in his/her own memory, that could signify that the survivor remains captive in the perpetrator’s world of death. In both cases, the survivor’s attempt to escape this paradox fails with the risk of confirming the abominable claim of the torturers. In this paper, the author emphasizes from an anthropological and psychotherapeutic point of view the dramatic logic of this rhetoric and its consequences long after the fact.”

RIEFF, D. (2011). The Persistence of Genocide. Policy Review, (165), 29-40. [From the Abstract] “The article examines why genocide persists within the world. The author uses a phrase that was created to condemn the genocide that took place during the Jewish Holocaust to illustrate how allegedly trite anti-genocide rhetoric has become. The paper examines the U.S. National Security Strategy Paper, which was drafted during the administration of U.S. President Barack Obama. It pledges that the nation will strive to prevent mass atrocities and genocide, yet the author attests that this is an empty promise. U.S. humanitarian assistance efforts intended to aid places such as the Darfur region in Sudan are criticized.”

Rivers, I., & Noret, N. (2010). ‘I h8 u’: findings from a five-year study of text and email bullying. British Educational Research Journal, 36(4), 643-671. doi:10.1080/01411920903071918 [From the Abstract] “This study charts reports of nasty or threatening text and email messages received by students in academic years 7 and 8 (11-13 years of age) attending 13 secondary schools in the North of England between 2002 and 2006. Annual surveys were undertaken on behalf of the local education authority to monitor bullying. Results indicated that, over five years, the number of pupils receiving one or more nasty or threatening text messages or emails increased significantly, particularly among girls.However, receipt of frequent nasty or threatening text and email messages remained relatively stable. For boys, being a victim of direct-physical bullying was associated with receiving nasty or threatening text and email messages; for girls it was being unpopular among peers. Boys received more hate-related messages and girls were primarily the victims of name-calling. Findings are discussed with respect to theoretical and policy developments, and recommendations for future research are offered.”

Romaniuk, S., & Wasylciw, J. (2010). Knowing Genocide: The Practice of Mass-Killing in Ideologically Motivated Wars of Annihilation. European Journal of Scientific Research, 41(1), 22-31. [From the Abstract] “What are some of the social products of ethnic cleansing and war? Should genocide be considered part of the war experience? What is the relationship between nationalism and ethnic violence? Although the twentieth century was an age of genocide, perceptions usually reflect intuitive understandings of broader realities.Examining the works of Timothy Snyder, Karel Berkhoff, and Robert Hayden, this paper considers whether genocide should be understood as an off-shoot of war, or whether it may be seen as a separate issue. It begins by examining the concepts of genocide and ethnic cleansing, and supplements this with an examination of three distinct instances of extreme violence in war in Eastern Europe and the Balkans. It presents a framework for judging whether or not the actions of a state against a people may be considered genocide.”

Schrag, C. O. (2006). Otherness and the problem of evil: How does that which is other become evil?. International Journal for Philosophy of Religion, 60(1-3), 149-156. doi:10.1007/s11153-006-0008-3 [From the Abstract] “In seeking to answer the question ‘How does that which is other become evil?’ the author provides a discussion of four entwined aspects of the issue at stake; (1) difficulty in achieving clarity on the grammar of evil; (2) genocide as a striking illustration of otherness becoming evil; (3) the challenge of postnationalism as a resource for dealing with otherness in the socio-political arena; and (4) the ethico-religious dimension as it relates to the wider problem of evil.”

Scott, J. (1999). From hate rhetoric to hate crime. Humanist, 59(1), 8. [From the Abstract] “Focuses on the relationship between hate speech and hate crime and the concept of anti-abortion violence. Details on the assassination of Doctor Barnett A. Slepian; Significance of Slepian’s death; Attacks against reproductive health clinics and providers; Role of Bill Baird, founder of the first abortion and birth control center in the United States (US), in efforts efforts to prevent anti-abortion violence in Cleveland, Ohio.”

Shepard, J. (2010). Last Man Standing: The American Who Stayed During the Rwandan Genocide — An Interview with Carl Wilkens. Journal of Hate Studies, 8(1), 143-152. [From the Abstract] “Carl Wilkens is a peace activist and an educator who headed up the Adventist Development and Relief Agency International in Rwanda (ADRA). He was the only American who chose to remain in Kigali, Rwanda during the genocide of 1994. His choice to remain in the country during that time of brutal atrocities resulted in the prevention of the murder of hundreds of children.”

Sherry, M. (2000). Hate Crimes Against Disabled People. Social Alternatives, 19(4), 23-30. [From the Abstract] “The article examines the widespread failure and need for a legislation to recognize hate crimes committed against people with disabilities in Australia. The legal and bureaucratic systems of the hate crimes and studies regarding crimes committed on people with specific impairments were taken into account. Other topics discussed include the change attitudes towards disability and improved service provider practices to reduce risk of abuse. Social, cultural, economic, physical were among the factors identified to contribute to a climate in which disabled people become victims of hate crimes.”

Sobkowicza, P. P., & Sobkowicz, A. A. (2010). Dynamics of hate based Internet user networks. European Physical Journal B — Condensed Matter, 73(4), 633-643. doi:10.1140/epjb/e2010-00039-0 [From the Abstract] “Statistical analysis shows that the growth of the discussions depends on the degree of controversy of the subject and the intensity of personal conflict between the participants. This is in contrast to most previously studied social networks, for example networks of scientific citations, where the nature of the links is much more positive and based on similarity and collaboration rather than opposition and abuse. The work discusses also the implications of the findings for more general studies of consensus formation, where our observations of increased conflict contradict the usual assumptions that interactions between people lead to averaging of opinions and agreement.”

Souleimanov, E. (2010). Armenian Genocide as an International Political Phenomenon. New Presence: The Prague Journal of Central European Affairs, 12(3), 16-24. [From the Abstract] “The article focuses on Armenian genocide, an international political dilemma that divides Armenia and the Turkish Republic and creates tension in the entire region. It notes that the issue has moved into the European domain and became even more controversial as Turkey has started the disputed European Union accession talks due to European diasporas. However, the Armenian genocide issue has led into an icy diplomatic relations between France and Turkey, and other countries recently.”

Sun, R. C. (2003). Finding Light in the Darkness? The Historical Treatment of Genocide as a Template for the Field of Hate Studies. Journal of Hate Studies, 3(1), 167-175. [From the Abstract] “Focuses on the historical treatment of genocide for the field of hate studies.Identification of the issues fundamental to the analysis of the formulation and expression of hatred in history; Relevance of the nature of modern genocides to some of aspects of modern society, political organizations and ideologies; Contribution of social historians in understanding the causation of massive genocide.”

Sutton, M., & Perry, B. (2009). Politicking the personal: examining academic literature and British National Party beliefs and wishes about intimate interracial relationships and mixed heritage. Information & Communications Technology Law, 18(2), 83-98. doi:10.1080/13600830902814992 [From the Abstract] “Drawing heavily on our earlier work in this area (Perry and Sutton 2006; forthcoming), this article discusses the issue of intimate interracial relationships (IIRs) within the context of the UK Government’s current concerns with social cohesion and provides an overview of the literature on hate and prejudice against those in IIRs in the UK and USA. Following an examination of the official statistics and the numbers of mixed race people in England and Wales, we move on to provide a brief but disturbing glimpse of what it would mean if the BNP’s long-term dream of winning a national election were actually to happen in light of their official website published proposed policies against IRRs and mixed heritage people.”

Symonds, M. (2010). The “Second Injury” to Victims of Violent Acts. American Journal of Psychoanalysis, 70(1), 34-41. doi:10.1057/ajp.2009.38 [From the Abstract] “The three major concepts in Symond’s approach are: (1) self-hate and shame are the key dynamics in post traumatic distress; (2) ordinary professional attitudes of those who are supposed to help often intensify the traumatized person’s self-hate and shame. Martin Symonds called this is the second injury; and (3) to counteract the self-hate and the shame, the professional must adopt a much more active attitude and behavior—in contrast to the previous experience the traumatized individual has had with the world of helpers (including family and friends).”

Thweatt, E. (2001). Bibliography of Hate Studies Materials. Journal of Hate Studies, 1(1), 167. [From the Abstract] “Presents a bibliography of several research materials and resources on hate studies.Books; Reports from state advisory committees in the U.S.; Videos.”

Tianjun, F., Abbasi, A., & Chen, H. (2010). A focused crawler for Dark Web forums. Journal of the American Society for Information Science & Technology, 61(6), 1213-1231. doi:10.1002/asi.21323 [From the Abstract] “In this study, we propose a novel crawling system designed to collect Dark Web forum content. The system uses a human-assisted accessibility approach to gain access to Dark Web forums. Several URL ordering features and techniques enable efficient extraction of forum postings. The system also includes an incremental crawler coupled with a recall-improvement mechanism intended to facilitate enhanced retrieval and updating of collected content. Experiments conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the human-assisted accessibility approach and the recall-improvement-based, incremental-update procedure yielded favorable results. The human-assisted approach significantly improved access to Dark Web forums while the incremental crawler with recall improvement also outperformed standard periodic- and incremental-update approaches.”

Turpin-Petrosino, C. (2002). Hateful Sirens. . .Who Hears Their Song? An Examination of Student Attitudes Toward Hate Groups and Affiliation Potential. Journal of Social Issues, 58(2), 281. [From the Abstract] “This exploratory study examined youth attitudes toward hate groups. Deprivation and interpersonal bonds theories were used to explain hate group attraction among students. Secondary and university students completed the 567 surveys used in the analysis. Results indicated that crime-related measures and exposure to hate groups by word-of-mouth contacts were more often related to supportive attitudes.”

Verkuyten, M. (1998). Personhood and Accounting for Racism in Conversation. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour, 28(2), 147. [From the Abstract] “Provides information on a study that examined how people account for and justify their negative views about minority groups and thus deal with possible accusation of racism. Methodologies used; Results and discussion; Conclusions.”

Vollhardt, J., Coutin, M., Staub, E., Weiss, G., & Deflander, J. (2006). Deconstructing Hate Speech in the DRC: A Psychological Media Sensitization Campaign. Journal of Hate Studies, 5(1), 15-35. [From the Abstract] “The article provides a brief overview of the instrumentalization of hate speech and the violent effects it has had in the Great Lakes region of Africa. A summary of the most recent events in the DRC is given. Here, hate speech was used in the presidential election campaigns in 2006, contributing to a polarization of the country and giving the campaign an ethnic underpinning. A radio program developed to counteract hate speech during the election campaigns is described. Its theoretical basis, the application of Staub’s (1989) theory of the evolution of mass violence to hate speech, is presented. Based on this and other relevant psychological concepts, characteristics and psychological aspects of hate speech are summarized, and markers and guidelines are provided that allow listeners to detect and counteract hate speech.”

Waller, J. E. (2003). Our Ancestral Shadow: Hate and Human Nature in Evolutionary Psychology. Journal of Hate Studies, 3(1), 121-132. [From the Abstract] “Focuses on the relevance between hate and human nature. Aid of scientist Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution wherein the human behavior is driven by instinct, explains the complexities of human nature; Role of culture as the determinant of human behavior evidenced by studies on human nature which led to social sciences; Significance of evolutionary psychology in understanding ones’ psychological tendencies that animate several behaviors including hate.”

Waller, J. (2001). Perpetrators of Genocide: An Explanatory Model of Extraordinary Human Evil. Journal of Hate Studies, 1(1), 5. [From the Abstract] “Presents an explanatory model of extraordinary evil in humans who perpetrate acts of genocide. Key issues of interest; Analysis of pertinent topics and relevant issues; Implications on hate studies.”

Ward Sr., M. (2009). The Banality of Rhetoric? Assessing Steven Katz’s “The Ethic of Expediency” Against Current Scholarship on the Holocaust.Journal of Technical Writing & Communication, 39(2), 207-222. doi:10.2190/TW.39.2.f [From the Abstract] “Since 1992, Steven Katz’s ‘The Ethic of Expediency’ on the rhetoric of technical communication during the Holocaust has become a reference point for discussions of ethics. But how does his thesis compare to current understandings of the Holocaust?As this article describes, Katz was in step with the trend two decades ago to universalize the lessons of the genocide but his thesis presents key problems for Holocaust scholars today. Against his assertion that pure technological expediency was the ethos of Nazi Germany, current scholarship emphasizes the role of ideology. Does that invalidate his thesis? Katz’s analysis of rhetoric and his universalizing application to the Holocaust are two claims that may be considered separately. Yet even if one does not agree that ‘expediency’ is inherent in Western rhetoric, Katz has raised awareness that phronesis is socially constructed so that rhetoric can be unethically employed. Thus, rather than remain an uncritically accepted heuristic for technical communicators, ‘The Ethic of Expediency’ can be a starting point for ongoing exploration into the ethical and rhetorical dimensions of the genre. “

Weatherby, G., & Scoggins, B. (2005). A Content Analysis of Persuasion Techniques Used on White Supremacist Websites. Journal of Hate Studies, 4(1), 9-31. [From the Abstract] “The article presents the results of a content analysis of persuasion techniques found on white supremacist Web sites. The study looked at web sites of groups connected to larger movements, including the Neo-Nazi movement, the Ku Klux Klan, and the Christian Identity movement. According to the article, the best way to counteract these groups’ hate messages is through education.”

White, R., & Perrone, S. (2001). Racism, Ethnicity and Hate Crime.Communal / Plural: Journal of Transnational & Crosscultural Studies, 9(2), 161-181. doi:10.1080/13207870120081479 [From the Abstract] “The aim of this paper is to discuss the findings of a recent study of ‘ethnic youth gangs’ in Melbourne, and to indicate the relevance of these findings to discussion of hate crime. The paper begins by briefly describing the social context within which the ‘race debate’ in Australia has emerged, and the nature of hate crime directed at minority groups. It then provides an extended examination of street conflicts involving young people from a diverse range of ethnic backgrounds. It is argued that racism permeates the lives of ethnic minority youth in ways which foster violence as a practical solution to problems of status and identity. However, inter-group violence of this sort also reinforces the stereotypes and social divisions upon which racial vilification and hate crime feed.”

Whitehorn, A. (2010). The Steps and Stages of Genocide. Peace Magazine, 26(3), 16-19. [From the Abstract] “The article focuses on the author’s views concerning genocide. He believes that genocide is not an accident but it is premeditated and follows recognizable patterns.He outlines the steps and stages of genocide such as classification, organization, and dehumanization, stressing the significance of understanding genocide to live in peace and justice.”

Williamson, L., & Pierson, E. (2003). The Rhetoric of Hate on the Internet: Hateporn’s Challenge to Modern Media Ethics. Journal of Mass Media Ethics, 18(3/4), 250-267. [From the Abstract] “This article groups the rhetoric of hate on the Internet into five generic categories.Although continuous with its ancestral form, we argue that in its discontinuity this cyberspace variant is uniquely harmful to children because of its diffuse textuality, anonymity, and potential for immersive, user-interactivity. This unique postmodern grammar compels us to confront the sacrosanct premises of our paradoxical ethic of tolerance. We conclude that a postmodern, ethic that features accountability can be derived by augmenting our conception of critical praxis.”

Willis, D. G. (2008). Meanings in adult male victims’ experiences of hate crime and its aftermath. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 29(6), 567-584. doi:10.1080/01612840802048733 [From the Abstract] “The purposes of this study were to describe gay men’s experiences of hate crime and understand the meanings they attribute to it. Data were analyzed from individual interviews with seven gay men who recounted nine separate hate crimes. Participants perceived their hate crimes as homophobic acts of verbal harassment and violent assault targeted at silencing their identities, which they actively resisted. They perceived the aftermath as an extended period of time in which they lived with a heightened awareness of self, others, and the environment. This heightened awareness was reported to disrupt intimacy and social connectedness while they attempted to make meaning of their experiences and heal.”

Wright, A. N., & Tolan, J. (2009). Prejudice Reduction Through Shared Adventure: A Qualitative Outcome Assessment of a Multicultural Education Class. Journal of Experiential Education, 32(2), 137-154. [From the Abstract] “The class brought together students from diverse backgrounds and used adventure education methods to achieve multicultural education goals. The class combined adventure-based experiences from ropes courses or wilderness trips with community exploration assignments, papers, and class discussions on diversity issues. Students (n = 134) wrote a final reflective essay on the learning experiences from the class. The essays were analyzed using content analysis to assess key learning events and learning outcome themes. Results show positive outcomes in personal identity, group experience, diversity awareness, and prejudice reduction.”

Woods, J. (2010). The Internet’s Promise to Improve Bias-Crime Reporting: The Case for Including Bias Crimes on Official Crime-Reporting Websites. Journal of Hate Studies, 8(1), 87-102. [From the Abstract] “The article discusses the potential of online crime reporting in improving bias-crime reporting. It discusses the problem of bias-crime underreporting, limited use of online crime-reporting systems by U.S. law enforcement agencies and explains benefits of online bias crime reporting. It also discusses the need to include bias crimes by the U.S. law enforcement departments their official crime-reporting websites.”

Woolf, L. M., & Hulsizer, M. R. (2002). Intra- and Inter-Religious Hate and Violence: A Psychosocial Model. Journal of Hate Studies, 2(1), 5-25. [From the Abstract] “Examines a proposed psychosocial model to explain the characteristics of intra- and inter-religious hate and violence. Correlations with the history of aggression in the perceived threat orientation; Dynamics of the ideology of antagonism; Identification of group cultural history factors which allows for a better understanding as to why a particular religious group gravitates toward hate and violence.”

Note: Our complete bibliography is broken into books, articles, and online resources.

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